Sea Circus, Seminyak, Bali: Colourful and Delicious!

Sea Circus was one of the first modern cafes in Seminyak at the start of the decade when Seminyak was more upmarket than it is today.

As a modern cafe, it’s done incredibly well to keep up with all the modern cafe trends. They’ve always served great coffee, but these days they also sell things like acai bowls kombucha.Sea Circus BaliIn our view, the food and drinks at Sea Circus are as good as they always have been and remain one of our top picks in Seminyak.

Coffee comes smooth and dark and is really good.Coffee at Sea CircusJuices are fresh and sweet without the need for extra sugar.

The fitout of Sea Circus is what really sets it apart from many other cafes in Bali. There’s a real beach feel about it with a bunch of circus lights thrown into the mix. It’s bright and fresh and a perfect tonic if you’re feeling down.Inside area Sea Circus Bali

Interior Sea Circus BaliSea Circus remains one of our Bali favourites and we think it will be one of yours too. Top marks.

Sea Circus
Jalan Kayu Aya 22, Seminyak
Instagram: @seacircus
Opening Hours: setiap hari 08:00 – 01:00
Cappuccino: Rp28.000++
Blended juice: Rp40.000++
Acai bowl: Rp90.000++
Eggs benedict: Rp85.000++


Pison, Seminyak, Bali: A Good All-Rounder

On the number of times we’ve been to Pison, we’ve had completely different experiences. Some have been extremely busy, some really quiet. And it’s the busyness that really changes the nature of this place.

When we visited on a quiet occasion, the service was pleasant and attentive and the vibe of the cafe so chilled and relaxed. But when we visited and the cafe was full, service was very poor and waiters simply didn’t serve us unless we waved them over.Inside Pison CoffeeAdditionally, the vibe was a lot more chaotic and not really that nice. If you love a chaotic vibe, maybe you’d love Pison when it’s busy.Pison Coffee Petitenget BaliThe burger on a red velvet bun we had here was really really good. Generous meat patty, brioche-like bun and tasty cheese. It all sat together nicely so that you could pick it up and smash it.Red Velvet BurgerThe coffee here is also very good and up there with some of the best in Bali.Drinks at Pison CoffeeSo while we think this is a very good cafe, we don’t really like it when it gets too busy.View from above Pison Coffee BaliSo will we come again? Absolutely. It’s just one of those places that is nice to come with a coffee and your laptop.

Pison Coffee
Jalan Petitenget 8A, Seminyak
(0812) 383 4986
Instagram: @pisoncoffee
Jam bu: Minggu – Jumat 08:00-23.00, Sabtu 08:00 – 00:00

Cappuccino: Rp30.000++
Iced Taro: Rp35.000++
Red Velvet Burger: Rp65.000++


The Fat Turtle, Seminyak, Bali: A Top Spot for Brekky

Located on Jalan Petitenget right next to Biku, The Fat Turtle is a casual cafe serving up toast and pancakes and great coffee. A great place for a slow and leisurely breakfast!

The cafe is small with old fashioned tiles, sewing machine tables and hipster lights. We found the tables to be slightly small for groups of 4, but we managed anyway. If you’re a couple wanting to come here, there’s plenty of room.Inside Area Fat Turtle Seminyak BaliWe ordered a range of dishes and all were quite good. The red velvet pancakes came topped with cream and were tasty and moist.Red Velvet Pancakes Fat TurtleThe banana bread French toast was also moist, but some might think it’s too small. We like the size.Banana Bread French Toast Fat Turtle BaliThe corn fritters were awesome and the addition of the avocado purée was a good choice in order to keep the dish from being too dry.

The coffee was too notch and pretty much in line with what we expect in Bali these days.Coffee at Fat Turtle BaliWe’re fans of this place and would be happy to come back here again for breakfast or lunch. A good solid cafe for those in need of sustenance in Seminyak and one of the better places around.

The Fat Turtle
Jalan Petitenget 886A, Seminyak
Instagram: @thefatturtlebali
Opening Hours: 08:00 – 18:00
Red Velvet Pancakes: Rp55.000++
Banana Bread French Toast: Rp45.000++
Corn Fritters: Rp55.000++
Cappuccino: Rp25.000++


Milk & Madu, Canggu, Bali: Great Food in a Fantastic Open Air Pavilion

As Canggu opens up to more and more foreigners, more and more cafes open. Milk & Madu is one of the better ones in Canggu catering toward the foreigner crowd.

Located in a large Balinese style pavilion out towards Pantai Berawa, Milk & Madu serves up a range of baked egg dishes, toast, pancakes and other standard cafe fare.Hotcakes at Milk and MaduAnd the food we’ve tried is good! The skillet eggs are not huge, but enough for a breakfast and very tasty.Organic Skillet EggsThe eggs benedict with smashed avo was sensational. The mango pancakes tasted great, but were just too much for one person to eat.

Coffees and juices are good and worth coming here for on their own.Coffee at Milk and MaduFor people with kids, this is the perfect cafe. There’s a fair sized play area on the back lawn which doesn’t disturb other guests, but caters perfectly for families with kids.Milk and Madu Canggu BaliGarden at the back of Milk and MaduWe really like this cafe and think it’s worth visiting if you want to get away from the hustle and bustle of Seminyak for a while.

Milk & Madu
Jalan Raya Pantai Berawa No.52, Tibubeneng, Kuta Utara
Instagram: @milkandmadu
Jam Buka: setiap hari 07:00 – 22:00
Buttermilk hotcakes: Rp60.000++
Sauteed chorizo organic skillet eggs: Rp65.000++
Cappuccino: Rp30.000++
Super smoothies: Rp55.000++


Baby Revolver, Seminyak, Bali: Small in Stature, Grand in Flavour and Style

You may well have heard of Revolver in Seminyak, that famous coffee shop with the hidden entrance which opened around 2012. It was a hit at the time and in our view is still one of the best places for coffee in Bali.

But since 2013 there has also been a coffee shop called Baby Revolver which we absolutely love. On our last visit, we ordered a couple of coffees and we were blown away by the quality which we think exceeds just about anything else out there.Baby Revolver EspressoGreat temperature, great flavour and great texture.

The iced coffee was on the strong side, just as I like it. But Susan prefers a weaker coffee and would ask for a half shot next time.

They also serve a range of pastries and cakes here which hit the spot when you’ve sipping a coffee.Baby Revolver Espresso BaliThe location is what we really love about this place. It’s tiny and feels awesome when you’re the only one there.Coffee at Baby RevolverWhen it fills up it can feel a little crowded, but not so bad. Surprisingly, it’s not always full, so you’ve always got a good chance of getting a seat.Baby Revolver Boutique Coffee HouseThe staff are cool and helpful and we’ll definitely be back regularly for a coffee fix. Highly recommended and one of our favourites in Bali!

Baby Revolver
Jalan Kayu Aya / Gang 51, Seminyak
(0361) 735 648
Instagram: @revolverespresso
Black coffee: Rp25.000++

White coffee: Rp30.000++
Brownie: Rp40.000++


Things to do in Pagar Alam, South Sumatra, Indonesia

A couple of weeks ago I gave a wrap of my visit to Pagar Alam including a brief list of things to do. I thought I’d expand on that list and give a bit more detail on these things to do as Pagar Alam really is worth exploring.

1. Gunung Dempo

Gunung Dempo is ever present on the skyline of Pagar Alam. No matter where you go, you can see this 3150m tall volcano tower above the surrounding countryside. And the cool thing about Gunung Dempo is that you can climb it!

Gunung DempoClimbing it really requires a guide and you can either do it as an overnight hike or a one day hike. The overnight hike starts during the middle of the day and ends in the middle of the next with no night hiking required.

The one day hike requires hiking to start at about 2am in order to get a good view of sunrise. The descent ends at about midday and is very difficult. The practicalities of the hike can be read here and guides can be arranged from any of the hotels in town.

If you’re not interested in hiking, you can also get a great sunrise from a lookout half way up Gunung Dempo that is accessible by car or motorbike. Renting a motorbike is the cheapest way to do this, but a car and driver can be rented from most hotels as well.

Check this map for the location of the lookout.

2. Tea Plantations

Pagar Alam Tea PickersThe tea plantations of Pagar Alam line the slopes of Gunung Dempo. BESH hotel actually sits right in the middle of the plantations as do a number of other hotels. BESH at this stage is the only one bookable online.

To get to the tea plantations, simply drive towards the Gunung Dempo lookout mentioned in the point above. Along this road, you will be driving right through the tea plantations. The views are incredible and there are often people picking the leaves. This means there are great opportunities for photos.

3. Waterfalls

There are said to be over 80 waterfalls to visit in and around Pagar Alam, but really disappointingly the information on these waterfalls is a tightly guarded secret. I think I remember seeing a map of them on a presentation given by some consultants when I was in town, but this is useless. Unless tourists can get their hands on these maps, waterfalls are going to be a tough sell in Pagar Alam.

Luckily, I was taken to 3 waterfalls when I was there and can provide details on how to get there.

7 Memories Waterfall (Cughup Tujuh Kenangan)

Pagar Alam WaterfallCughup Tujuh Kenangan is a large waterfall which is a short but steep hike from the parking area. It’s a good place for a swim and you’ll be the only visitor if you come on a weekday. There is no official entry fee, but because the path to the waterfall goes through private property, you will need to give some cigarette money to the local people. Rp10.000 per person should be enough.

Bowl Waterfall (Cughup Mangkok)

Pagar Alam WaterfallCughup Mangkok is a pummelling waterfall which barrels out of the forest into a large pool. It’s an ideal place for a swim and you can even test your swimming skills under the actual waterfall. I didn’t get a chance to go for a swim here, but the location is set up for swimming… so yeah, it’s perfect for that really.

Green Paradise

Green Paradise isn’t really a waterfall location per se… well there is a waterfall there, but you mainly go here to swim in the water which comes directly from a spring underground. The water is so clean and pure that there is even a drinking water bottling plant nearby.

Pagar Alam Kids PlayingWhen I was there there was a group of kids jumping off rocks into the pool and generally having a great old time. A top place for a swim! A small entry fee is payable at the front. Rp5.000 from memory.

4. Megaliths

So the megaliths around Pagar Alam are on of the big selling points of tourism in the region. Now, megaliths are quite a niche attractions as some people just aren’t interested in this sort of history. But if you are, the megaliths of Pagar Alam are awesome.

Many of the megaliths are between 2,000 and 4,000 years old and are located in the middle of ricefields. Unfortunately, maps of the megaliths are hard to come by and visiting on your own is a little difficult. One megalith that I do remember the location of is here.

5. Hotsprings

I really loved these hotsprings and wish I had more time to enjoy them. Located about 30km from the centre of Pagar Alam, a scenic motorbike or car ride is required to get there. And really, the scenery along the way is stunning and worth the ride alone.

The hotsprings are odd. The hot water bubbles up from a river bed meaning that it immediately mixes in with the cold river water. This is great because at its source, the water is incredibly hot. So hot that you can cook an egg in it. Down stream from the source of the hot water you can just laze around and soak in the warm water.

A small fee is required to enter the area mainly because the local village paid for the concrete path out of their own money (apparently).

6. Old Church

If you’ve gone to the hotsprings, you may as well visit Gereja Santo Mikael or St. Michael’s Church. Built back in 1938 to replace an earlier church, it represents the strength of Catholicism in the village which arrived in the 1800s. Incredibly, Dutch missionaries were living in this remote area since the 1800s — it seems they were everywhere!

So there you have it. That’s my pick of places to visit in Pagar Alam. They’re all pretty cool places and can easily be visited over the course of two days. Definitely worth a visit, especially if you’re doing an overland trip through Sumatra.


Pagar Alam, South Sumatra, Indonesia: Green as far as the eye can see

It’s been a while since I’ve written about my travels in Indonesia, despite having travelled to quite a few places over the past couple of years.

A couple of weeks ago I was invited (by the South Sumatra tourism people) to visit a place in Sumatra that I’d never previously heard of — Pagar Alam in South Sumatra. Apparently Pagar Alam has been identified by the Indonesian Ministry of Tourism as one of 88 places in Indonesia to be developed for tourism purposes.Pagar Alam Gunung Dempo

Now, we can debate the pros and cons of pumping money into micro-projects versus tackling the strategic/macro issues (such as country-wide infrastructure, visas and inter-ministry coordination to ensure a friendly tourism environment), but I can say that Pagar Alam is a worthy location for some of these funds.

In other words, the Indonesian Ministry of Tourism needs to work more as a coordinating authority to ensure that all the ingredients which make a destination favourable to tourism are the best they can be (many of which are managed by other ministries). But that’s an issue to discuss in another post.

Where is Pagar Alam?

Pagar Alam is located 280km and about 8 hours from Palembang and 169km and about 5 hours from Bengkulu by vehicle. Most people will access Pagar Alam either overland from other parts of Sumatra as part of a big trip through Sumatra or by flying to Lubuk Linggau from Jakarta and then catching public transport for 4 hours. (or hire a car and driver at the airport — there are lots of them and they will find you!)Pagar Alam Waterfall

TransNusa also flys directly between Pagar Alam and Jakarta on Tuesdays and Saturdays for a price of around Rp700,000. But it’s quite difficult to book these tickets online. Try emailing these email addresses for more info:

It actually makes sense to come to Pagar Alam if you are on a big trans Sumatra trip because it breaks up the journey nicely between Padang or Bengkulu and Bandar Lampung.

Climate of Pagar Alam

When you get here, you’ll find a stunning town located 700m above sea level on the slopes of Gunung Dempo. The climate is perfect. I really loved that night time temperatures were cool and day time temperatures moderately warm. Nothing like some of the lowland areas of Sumatra which can be stifling.

Make sure you bring some wet weather gear as it rained every afternoon I was there.

Things to do in Pagar Alam

I actually like Pagar Alam as a place to just relax and cruise around checking out the local way of life. But it also has some solid things to do as well such as:

  • Climbing the 3150m tall Gunung Dempo – info here
  • Visiting the nearby tea plantations
  • Checking out the hundreds of nearby waterfalls
  • Visiting the 2000 year old megaliths.

Pagar Alam WaterfallThe best idea is to rent a motorbike to get around on, but if you’re not interested in riding a motorbike, there are plenty of cars and drivers available from the hotels.

Where to Stay

I stayed at the best hotel in town, Besh Hotel. They have a bunch of accommodation options ranging from standard rooms to large multi-room villas. The hotel is located right on the edge of the tea plantation and it’s an awesome place for photos, especially in the early morning. Check it here on Traveloka.Pagar Alam Tea Pickers

Unfortunately, no other hotels are listed on any of the big booking websites. But the following hotels can be contacted directly:

  • Garuda ZZ Hotel – +62 730 622177
  • Mirasa Hotel (recommended by Lonely Planet) – +62 730 621266
  • Dharma Karya Hotel – +62 730 621297

Pagar Alam reminded me of one of the great things about Indonesia. There is always one more place to visit. You’ll never get bored of travelling here, no matter how long you’ve been travelling for. No matter how much you think you know about the place.Pagar Alam Kids Playing

It’ll be interesting to see how the tourism scene in Pagar Alam develops over the next decade. With the right sort of investment in infrastructure throughout Indonesia, we should see places like Pagar Alam flourish. At this point, it’s still virtually untouched.

I’m a big fan of Pagar Alam. It’s a wonderful place to recharge before heading onto your next destination.



Summerbird: Boutique Hotel in Bandung

Summerbird is a funky boutique hotel in Bandung which is perfect for kids of the Instagram generation due to its unique style and trendy fitout. Located in the centre of Bandung just off Jalan Pasirkaliki, Summerbird is close to the Bandung train station, Istana Plaza, Paskal Hypersquare and Jalan Cibadak. You can even walk to Pasar Baru from here if you feel like it.

Summerbird is a small hotel with only 3 levels of rooms, with each of the rooms surrounding an open courtyard area which gives the entire hotel a bright and airy feel. Construction is based on bare steel, lots of wood and a liberal usage of bricks which gives a very modern, fresh feel.Summerbird Boutique Hotel Bandung Bathroom

Rooms at Summerbird are themed — French, Scandinavian, Industrial and Vintage. We stayed in both the French and the Scandinavian rooms and to be honest, they are one of the funkiest rooms we’ve ever stayed in. Oh, and perfect for taking great photos of. We even saw a couple doing a pre-wedding shoot while we were there.

Each room comes with air-conditiong, private bathroom with Western toilet and hot water, a big comfortable bed (seriously, it’s really soft and fluffy), cable television and free WiFi. The other thing is that the rooms are really clean and some of the fittings they use are seriously expensive and imported meaning you can immediately feel the quality of the room. Take the shower fittings for example — classy toto.Summerbird Boutique Hotel Bandung

Breakfast is included in the room price and is served in the cafe downstairs. We had nasi goreng and coffee and it was perfectly adequate for the day ahead. You’re also able to order other things off the menu for an extra fee, just like a regular cafe and we can people coming and having other meals here too.

We were initially worried that the massive glass wall in the bathroom would be a problem as far as privacy is concerned, but it turns out that they have blinds which you can pull down. all the way meaning you don’t have to worry about anything.

So what’s our verdict about this place? We really love it. Not only does the hotel look good in photos, it actually feels good to stay there. The beds are awesome, the air-conditioning icy cold and the room feels homey especially on a rainy Bandung day.

Summerbird Hotel
Jalan Ksatriaan no. 11. Bandung
Standard: Rp. 439.000
Superior: Rp. 489.000
Deluxe: Rp. 539.000

Check the current price on Agoda


A couple of weeks in Flores, Indonesia

So we went to Flores a few weeks back to check out this mountainous Indonesian island and some of the great attractions around it such as Komodo Island – home of Komodo Dragons.

Komodo Dragons are huge ugly beasts
Komodo Dragons are huge ugly beasts

We flew directly from Bali into Labuan Bajo at the western end of Flores. Labuan Bajo is a ramshackle old port town and is a popular jumping off point for people wanting to dive the islands in this part of the world and also to visit the famous Komodo Island. We headed straight for Kanawa Island, an idyllic tropical island fringed by a stunning coral reef.

Relaxing on Kanawa Island
Relaxing on Kanawa Island

Accommodation on the island is basic with electricity only available for a few hours per day and only cold water for showering. Prices are quite high for what you get, but one thing that really makes this place worthwhile is the reef right in front of the bungalows. It’s a healthy patch of sea filled with massive fish, colourful sea creatures and the odd shark. The other thing that sets this place apart from many places is that it gets magnificent, almost unrealistic sunsets.

Kanawa Island puts on a light show
Kanawa Island puts on a light show

During our stay on Kanawa Island we did a day trip which included snorkelling with 4m wide manta rays, observing Komodo dragons up close and see some amazing coral at Batu Bolong. That day trip was one of the best I have ever done and I highly recommend it to anyone coming to Indonesia.

Next stop on our trip was Seraya Island which  is essentially a simplified version of Kanawa Island. Great reef, fantastic sunrise and sunset, basic accommodation and a fantastic fishing village around the other side.

Sunrise on Seraya Island is worth getting up early for
Sunrise on Seraya Island is worth getting up early for
The sunrises on Seraya Island are stunning
The sunrises on Seraya Island are stunning

After 5 days on the islands, we headed back to Labuan Bajo to commence our Flores overland trip. It’s possible to get across the island on public transport and we’d normally want to do that, but we had my mum and her friend with us so we decided to hire a car and driver for $60 per day which included everything. Across Flores there are so many things to see ranging from a ricefield shaped like a spiderweb to Kelimutu, a famous volcano with three differently coloured lakes.

The first day took us to Ruteng where the highlight is a spiderweb ricefield. Nice to see, but quick to enjoy. All along the road to Ruteng are people selling oranges — for me, buying oranges from these kids was one of the highlights of the day rather than the ricefield. I guess that’s a sign of my shift to preferring experiences when travelling rather than simply seeing stuff.

Buying juicy oranges off the children -- an absolute highlight!
Buying juicy oranges off the children — an absolute highlight!

The next day we headed to Bajawa where there are a few cool things such as some traditional villages and some hot springs. We visited the traditional village of Bena and had a great time walking around, talking to the local people and trying to learn about their lives. In particular, one old man we spoke to told us all about his life, how much he pays for electricity ($5 for 3 months), what he likes to eat etc. The hot springs were also a cool thing to do. The water seeps out of the ground into a large pool and is extremely hot. Once you get used to the heat, it’s not too bad in the water, but you do find yourself feeling not so good after a while as you start to overheat. At that time we found it best to go to a part of the stream where the hot water mixes with cold water. A perfect luke warm bath!

Man chewing betelnut in Bena
Man chewing betelnut in Bena
Bena village with its traditional thatched roofs
Bena village with its traditional thatched roofs

Next on the agenda was the village of Moni. This day of driving involved an enormous landslide which blocked the road, some roadside stops and the highlight itself, Moni. Well, Moni isn’t a highlight but the town is home to the famous Kelimutu. The next morning we woke up EARLY. Hiked up the mountain through clouds of sulfurous gas and saw the sunrise over Kelimutu. We later found out that the lakes had recently completely changed colour and that the increased gas was dangerous. The alert level had been raised on the mountain and it was officially closed, but no one on the mountain actually knew about that (or cared!). So we hiked up oblivious to the danger. I actually felt my airways closing over on the way up and was a bit worried. In the end all was fine and we saw a great sunrise.

Cute girl hoola hoops as we stop at a warung
Cute girl hoola hoops as we stop at a warung

We ended our time in Flores in the town of Maumere which isn’t fantastic.

Overall, though, Flores proved to be a fantastic adventure. Highly recommended for those wanting to get out of Bali and see the rest of Indonesia.


Living in Java: an update

Well, well, well. It’s been a pretty amazing year and a bit in Java. Spending one whole year in Java doesn’t actually sound like that much of a big deal to me right now. But I know that before arriving the thought of living anywhere other than Australia for a year seemed like sheer madness. Now it feels normal.

Just one of the many amazing places I have visited in Java in the past year
Just one of the many amazing places I have visited in Java in the past year

Earlier this year I posted a video montage celebrating a year in Indonesia. It’s a simple video which shows some of the trials, tribulations and delights of everyday life in Indonesia. Some with a keen eye will have seen some of the important moments from my time here in Indonesia so far.

Getting Married

The most important thing that has happened to me in Indonesia during the past year is getting married. I came to Java for a 3-month stint studying Indonesian and ended up getting married. How did that happen? Nobody knows, but I’m extremely happy and that’s all that really matters. Susan and I were married in June this year in Bali surrounded by a handful of friends and family.

Us on our wedding day
Us on our wedding day

Learning Indonesian in Bandung

I came originally to study at IMLAC for 3 months before shooting off to Bali to learn how to surf. Well, since I was getting to know Susan and was generally having a fab time living in Bandung, I decided to extend my Indonesian lessons. I ended up completing 6 months of full-time study. I thought that after completing this much studying that I would be fluent, but I am not. I can hold a conversation with anyone in Indonesian and can pickup a lot of what people are talking about when I overhear their conversations, but I still struggle to talk in the style of locals. Why? Because the proper way of speaking and writing in Indonesian is a long way from how most people actually speak. Many people studying at my school questioned why we didn’t learn the informal language, but that’s not something you go to school for. You learn that on the street and by interacting with people.

One of the classrooms at IMLAC
One of the classrooms at IMLAC

For anyone intending on staying in Indonesia for any extended period of time, I would highly recommend getting some formal training in Bahasa Indonesia. I saw many people arrive in IMLAC with no Indonesian language knowledge getting to a pretty good proficiency within 1 month.

Writing for Travelfish

I continued writing for Travelfish while in Indonesia and this took about 3 months of my time. I covered most of Java. Actually, to cover every tourism aspect of Java would probably take about 5 months, so I hit the spots that foreign tourists are more likely to hit. Even then I spent a week at one point without seeing another white person. Java doesn’t get many foreign tourists travelling through it. Those that do come here spend their time in Yogyakarta and then move on. How very sad.

Working for Travelfish is no holiday, but it's fun!
Working for Travelfish is no holiday, but it’s fun!


Recently Susan and I spent two months in Australia and New Zealand having our honeymoon. We stayed in campervans for most of the period and it was an incredible experience. Highly recommended. More to come on this.

Sunrise in the outback on our honeymoon
Sunrise in the outback on our honeymoon


Reflecting on the past year and a bit, I can truly say that life is unpredictable when you don’t have the anchor of a proper job dictating events. I’m becoming increasingly keen to start a business or ten here in Indonesia. Everywhere I look I see opportunity for people with my background to make money. Whether it be opening up a small guesthouse, a small eatery, a website or something else. Opportunity abounds here.

Right now Susan and I are experimenting with a new Indonesian travel website called Pergi Dulu which we hope one day will provide destination information to the growing masses of Indonesian travellers. Today it is a blog, tomorrow hopefully something different.

So that’s where I am at now. I’m truly passionate about Indonesia and am bullish on the country’s economic prospects and potential as a tourist destination. If only the rest of the world would wake up.